As a country starting with letter H according to Countryaah, Hungary, Hungarian Magyarország [ m ɔ dj ɔ rorsa ː g], is state in the southeast of Central Europe (2018) 9.8 million residents; The capital is Budapest.
Restored Monarchy (1918–1945)
The defeat in the First World War and Karl’s “People’s Manifesto” ushered in the disintegration of the Danube monarchy. On October 25, 1918, a Hungarian National Council was founded under the leadership of Count M. Count Károlyi von Nagykárolyi. The brutal crackdown by the police against mass demonstrations in Budapest on October 28, 1918 sparked the bourgeois-democratic “aster revolution”; on October 29, 1918 the solution of Hungary was declared by Austria. Károlyi’s assumption of government on October 31 was followed by the proclamation of the Republic of Hungary on November 16, 1918. The government had to vacate large areas in the south and east of the country. Croatia-Slavonia had already broken the constitutional connection with Hungary on October 29th. Under the protection of the Entente Allies, the Czechs occupied Upper Hungary (Slovakia), the Romanians Transylvania and the Serbs occupied southern Hungary. On March 21, 1919, when the peace conference demanded the evacuation of a neutral zone on the demarcation line with Romania, Károlyi (since January 11th also provisional president) had to give way to a social democratic-communist government, which in fact was led by B. Kun and which on March 22, 1919 proclaimed the “Hungarian Soviet Republic”; In Szeged a counter-revolutionary government was formed. Red Terror, economic standstill and the war against the ČSR and v. a. Romania quickly brought down the council government (August 1, 1919), on August 3, 1919 Romanian troops marched into Budapest. After a bloody settlement with the supporters of the Soviet Republic, among others. with anti-Semitic pogroms, the party of small farmers, agricultural workers and citizens (in short: party of small farmers; founded in 1909) won the national assembly elections. On March 1, 1920, the National Assembly elected Admiral M. Horthy to the “Reichsverweser” and restored the monarchy despite the later removal of the Habsburgs from office (November 6, 1921). After the peace treaties of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1919) and Trianon (June 4, 1920), Hungary lost 68% of its former territory (Transylvania, Banat, Slovakia, Croatia, later Burgenland inter alia; after a referendum on December 14, 1921, Hungary got the area around Sopron back) and 59% of its former population. Almost 3 million Magyars had to live on the other side of the new national borders as national minorities – spread over four neighboring states. The loss of the peripheral areas in predominantly small and medium-sized peasant holdings exacerbated the unequal distribution of land. A mass army of small-scale farmers and farm laborers provided social explosives (contemporary term “land of 3 million beggars”). The negative experiences with the dictatorship of the councils gave a boost to restorative forces. The demand for a revision of the peace, which was perceived as unjust, dominated Hungarian domestic and foreign policy in the future. – Under the authoritarian measures covering Horthy could Prime Minister I. Bethlen von Bethlen (1921–31) consolidate the domestic political and economic situation after the restoration of the semi-feudal state and social order, as well as fend off the attempts atrestoration by King Charles IV on April 5 and October 25, 1921.
Domestically, the global economic crisis caused a shift to the right; In terms of foreign policy, it was based on Italy and the German Reich, against the Little Entente – but with clear sympathy for Great Britain. Under Prime Minister G. Gömbös von Jákfa (1932–36) a rapprochement with Hitler and Mussolini was sought with a 95-point “National Work Program”. The Vienna Arbitral Awards (1938/40) and the break-up of Yugoslavia in April 1941 brought back part of the territories lost to Hungary in 1918/20 (Batschka, Carpathian-Ukraine, Northern Transylvania and the Szeklerland). The unpopular participation in the German Russian campaign (from June 23, 1941), after the catastrophic Hungarian defeat on the Don in 1943, increased the desire to leave the Second World War, whereupon Hungary was occupied by the Wehrmacht on March 19, 1944. When Horthy ordered the cessation of fighting on October 15, 1944, the “Arrow Cross” under F. Szálasi establishedwith German support a dictatorship that continued the war and raged among opponents of the regime and Jews. In the area occupied by Soviet troops from August 1944, a provisional government under General Béla Dálnoki-Miklós (* 1890, † 1948) began work on December 22, 1944 in Debrecen; On January 20, 1945, it concluded an armistice with the Allies, renouncing the regained territories. On April 4, 1945, the Soviet troops had completely conquered the country.
The natural vegetation belonging to the Central European flora has only survived in the mountain forests and floodplains. The vegetation of the low mountain ranges consists of oak and ash in lower areas, and beech, maple and birch in higher areas; Coniferous forests have only recently emerged through afforestation. The steppe (Puszta), which was formerly widespread in the great Hungarian lowlands, interspersed with floodplain and moor forests and created as a cultural landscape, has disappeared due to amelioration, with the exception of a few remains (nature reserves).
The Transdanubian hill country shows Mediterranean influences. There are ten national parks in Hungary, of which the 820 km 2 Hortobágy National Park near Debrecen is the largest; it was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1999.