Switzerland’s geographical position among the great national civilizations and its participation in German, French and Italian ethnic expressions also explain the originality of its musical life. The cultural autonomy of the cantons produces differences between the musical development of individual cities; a special development finds popular music, which has its oldest flowering ways in the use of wind instruments (Stierhorn, Alphorn), and in the calls and songs of shepherds, hunters, soldiers. With the introduction of Christianity the chant of the Church was introduced in Switzerland, and not only directly from Rome, but especially through the work of the Nordic missionaries, who presented the original figure of that Roman Catholic chant interpreted by a Germanic sentiment.. At the same time the action of Gallican elements penetrated western Switzerland; so that different figures of Christian choral singing were able to settle in the small Swiss territory. The liturgical reforms consequent to the Council of Trent favored, yes, a close adherence to the strictly Roman figures of this chant; however many vestiges of the original tradition also remain. The Swiss Benedictines have spread their ancient Alemannic choral manner to this day. St. Gallen became a center where church singing developed in a very unique way, then spreading to the rest of Switzerland and southern Germany. If not exactly the place of creation, St. Gallen can be indicated as the most important propulsive center of the sequence (Notker or Balbulo) and of the trope (Tutilo). Notation and music theory find significant examples in the cloisters of Lake Constance: Hartker (died in 1011) wrote in the 10th century. X his famous antiphonary, Notker or Labeone (died 1022), Bernone of Reichenau (died 1048), Hermannus Contractus (died 1054) give important musical treatises.
Along with liturgical chant, instrumental music also found wide practice in the Swiss monasteries of the Middle Ages; especially the art of organ-making and organ-making flourished. The cultural relations of the various monasteries with the civilizations of the south, west and north are made through the absorption of the various European musical innovations. Polyphony and liturgical drama reach a rich flowering. The particular attraction that even today is noted among the Swiss for the great dramatic-musical performances is already visible in the extensive development of the “mysteries”, which date back to the century. XI. Minnesang and Meistersang flourish between the century. XII and XV (Hadlaub, Singenberg, Landegg, Steinmar, Teschler, Rost, etc.). Novel and Germanic elements converge in thisSwiss Minnegesang. Through the different stylistics were the singers and itinerant players. The exchange of musicians with Alsace and Swabia was particularly intense. Cities had their own organizations of salaried trumpeters and fifes, and special guilds looked after the social and moral standing of the musicians. Ulmann Meyer of Bremgarten in 1430 was “king of the fifes” of Switzerland. The musical impetus of the people on the other hand finds its strongest expression in the song; in it, which finds its flowering from the century. XIII to XVI, the people cultivate political satires, Jodler and Kuhreihen (Ranz des vaches), together with songs common to other nations as well. The singing of war songs and the sound of drums and fifes accompanied the Swiss armies on the roads of war.
Swiss musical life reached its greatest importance in the 15th and 16th centuries, during which a great diffusion of organ and vocal music was noted in the cities influenced by the Reformation. The maximum flowering of the organ elaboration of the Lied as well as motet art are linked to the names of E. Koler, in Lucerne and Bern (around 1500), I. Heer from Glarus, M. Barbarini (Lupus) from Locarno and St. Gallen, G. Meyer from Solothurn and Basel (died 1576), C. Alder of Bern (died 1550), M. Apiarius of Bern (died 1554), G. Wannenmacher of Friborg (died 1551), C. Hör of St. Gall (died 1572)) and above all of L. Senfl (died in 1556), who last distinguished himself as master of the court chapel in Munich. The most important work of H. Herpol of Freiburg consists in the musical intonations of the Gospel texts. The Ticinese A. Tadei (died in 1667) continued in the century. XVII the tradition of a cappella singing composing among other things a mass for 16 voices. The organ art, attested in the century. XII in Engelberg, it found its greatest diffusion in the XV and XVI centuries. The Basel organ had been in operation as early as 1303, and organs were placed in all large churches by Swiss and foreign manufacturers. Near the end of the century. XV the manufacturers H. Tugi from Basel (died 1519), L. Lauberer from Bern (died 1507), P. Leid from Freiburg were highly sought after. Until the organ had to be silent in the places invaded by the Reformation, organ art continued during the 15th and 16th centuries thanks to the work of valiant organists: Michsner (1431), M. Eigen (1450), A. Soumelin, G. Raps in Basel, H. Jörger (around 1480) in Einsiedeln, F. Sicher (1490-1546) in St. Gallen and Koler (around 1500) in Lucerne and Bern, H. Rosenzweig (died 1490), L. Lauberer (died 1507) in Bern, H. Buchner (died 1538) in Constance, and some pupils of P. Hofheimer such as H. Kotter (died 1541) in Freiburg; in which city, after the rejection of the Reformation, organ art found a special flourishing in the century. XVI with L. Herpol and C. Sebastiani. Music theory at this time finds its most significant treatise in Glareano (Heinrich Loriti, 1488-1563), who exerted a profound influence on Swiss musical life. His friend B. Amerbach (died 1562) collected works and musical instruments and was in close relationship with most of the Swiss musicians of his time. After all, most of the collections of 1488-1563), which had a profound influence on Swiss musical life. His friend B. Amerbach (died 1562) collected works and musical instruments and was in close relationship with most of the Swiss musicians of his time. After all, most of the collections of 1488-1563), which had a profound influence on Swiss musical life. His friend B. Amerbach (died 1562) collected works and musical instruments and was in close relationship with most of the Swiss musicians of his time. After all, most of the collections of Lieder of the Swiss humanists show, at the same time that their theoretical education, also their concrete musical interest. The important development achieved by organ and church music in general was annihilated, however, by the reformers. The new church music however developed slowly, at first reduced to the singing of the Psalms through the work of L. Bourgeois, W. Frank (died 1570), P. Davantes (died 1561) in Geneva; China Mareschall (died 1641) in Basel and later by A. Lardenois (Psalms of David, 1651) in Geneva, IW Simler (died 1672) of Zurich and others. In the Ladin territory of Grisons there are translations of the Psalms with Goudimel melodies, and still others in the century. XVIII published with new Ladin church songs; so for example of Valentin de Nicolai and M. Roner (1762), L. Viezel (1661-1733), C. Planta (1755), J. Grass (1790). In these same countries, conquered by the Reformation, secular music came to a crucial point. I Collegia music, a city society of amateurs, cultivated the singing of the Psalms of Goudimel-Lobwasser, but above all the profane vocal and instrumental music. Towards the middle of the century XVII these musical colleges had reached their maximum splendor in private musical life, while instrumental music entrusted its fortunes more and more constantly to renowned professionals. The entire production, from the sixteenth-century society Lied to the oratorio and symphony of the early nineteenth century, took place over the centuries in the environment of these Collegia. In their repertoire they had placed, after the Swiss composers, especially the Germans, but also the Italians and the French. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the Lied was practiced above allSwiss art (A. Schwilge, 1608-1688, I. Schmidlin, 1722-1772; I. Thommen, 1711-1783; IA Sulzer, 1752-1828; K. Zollikofer, 1707-1779; L. Steiner, 1688- 1761; IM Spiess, 1696-1772). The novelties were then made known by the Neujahrsblätter. Faced with this profane music so favored in the Reformed countries, church music, on the other hand, aroused the greatest interest in Catholic ones. They get great fame in the century. Seventeenth and eighteenth cantors and organists to whom the entire musical life (including scholastic) of the various cities belongs; popular shows and school performances were particularly cultivated in Jesuit and Benedictine schools.
Among the composers belonging to the concertante church music are to remember China Benn (1662), V. Molitor, M. Martini (died 1717), IP Zehender (died 1713), I. Schreiber (died 1800), B. Deuring (died 1768), W. Iten (died 1768), A. Marti (died 1794), M. Landwing (died 1813), B. Foresti (died 1851), J. Benninger, KA Kaiser (died in 1827), D. Stalder (died 1765), K. Reindl and above all Meyer v. Schauensee of Lucerne (1720-1789), who had traveled extensively and had passed through Italian schools (after all, many musicians of this time worked abroad – for example, M. Glettle in Augusta and others).
The German church chant was also very cultivated and examples of it remain in the work of IP Zehender, of KI Moos (1713), in the Gesangbuch of St. Gall (1705) in that of Einsiedeln (1733), etc.
Among the Swiss composers of the 17th and 18th centuries, N. Zerleder (1628-1691) in Bern, IU Sulzberger (1638-1701) in Winterthur and Bern, Diebold in Zurich, IM Spiess (1696-1772) in Bern, IL Steiner ( 1688-1761) in Zurich, I. Kyburg (died 1740) in Aarau, II Pfaff (1658-1729) in Basel, IK Bachofen (1695-1755) in Zurich, IC Deggeler (1695-1777) in Schaffhausen, SG Auberlen (1758-1828) in Winterthur, IH He (1742-1810) in Zurich, II Walder (1750-1817) in Zurich. Among the composers and virtuosos, H. Albicastro who lived in Holland, IB Dupuy (1773-1822), G. Fritz of Geneva (1716-1783), IX Lefèvre (1763-1839), I. Elouis (born in 1752) stood out. in Geneva), famous as a harpist. J.-J. Rousseau, carried out the work not only of a brilliant theorist but also of a very gifted composer.
The natural musicality of the Swiss people, that which emerges pure in the field of Volkslied, is deepened in the pedagogical conception (which gives so much importance to music) of HC Naegeli (1773-1836). The Naegeli, inspired by the criteria of Pestalozzi, can be considered as the founder of the musical education of the people and the youth, and his work has assumed importance even outside the borders of Switzerland. In 1805 he founded the Zurich singing school; together with MI Pfeiffer he developed and elaborated his singing school and on his directives numerous institutes arose, to which he supplied texts with his publishing activity.
The town and family musical life had a strong encouragement from the constant activity of Naegeli. The musical organizations (Schweizerische Musikgesellschaft, 1808-1867, Eidgenössischer Sängerverein up to 1842) took care of great musical festivals, emulating themselves in enriching the musical life of the city. These Swiss musical festivals were not only the first to be established on the continent, but also benefited from the best conductors and soloists of the time, such as KM v. Weber, L. Spohr and R. Wagner (who lived in exile in Switzerland and besides many writings there produced much of the Ring and the Tristan. Liszt and Brahms also spent a lot of time here.) Among the Swiss musicians of the century. XIXth century A. Tobler (1845-1923), W. Baumgartner (1820-1867), Zwyssig (1808-1854), FF Huber (1791-1863), K. Attenhofer (1837-1914), Schnyder v. Wartensee (1786-1868), L. Niedermeyer (1802-1861), JH Stuntz (1793-1859), K. Greith (1828-1887), etc. F. Hegar (1841-1927) broke new ground in the genre of ballad for choir. H. Huber (1852-1921), H. Suter (1870-1926), F. Brun (born 1878), V. Andreae (born 1879), G. Doret (born 1866) lead to the modern period, the which found masters of international importance with A. Honegger (born in 1892), and O. Schoeck (born in 1886). Young forces come today to oppose themselves, with C. Beck, A. Moeschinger, Müller v. Kulm: E. Ermatinger, GB Hilber, R. Blum,
The musical sciences are cultivated, after the fundamental studies of A. Schubiger, above all in the universities, of which those of Basel, Zurich, Bern and Friborg offer organized study environments with masters such as E. Bernoulli (died in 1927), Peter Wagner (died 1931), K. Nef (died 1935), E. Kurt, J. Handschin, W. Merian and others. The Schola Cantorum Basiliensis in Basel and the Menestrandie in Geneva are involved, together with the Collegia Musica of universities, in the studies and exercise of early music. Moreover, the musical sciences found their organization in the Schweizerische musikforschende Gesellschaft. The secretary of the International Society of Musicology is also based in Basel.
The major collections and music collections are owned by the Landesbibliothek of Bern, the Zentralbibliothek of Zurich, and the university library of Basel. Notable publishers are Hug in Zurich, Henn in Geneva. Swiss music teachers are gathered in the Musikpaedagogischer Verband, which also takes care of the artistic dignity of music teaching, while the legacy of the old Swiss music organization has been collected by the Schweizerischer Tonkünstler-Verein. Popular song finds special care, benefiting from a central collection institute in the Basler Volkskunde-Archiv and expert processors and transcribers such as J. Bovet, G. Doret, A. Stern, W. Schuh and others, as well as many societies for music popular, radio broadcasts, etc. At the. Rhythmic gymnastics and musical pedagogy gave work in Switzerland, not without spreading the system beyond the borders, E. Jaques-Dalcroze (born in 1865). In every big city there is a concert company with which local musical institutes collaborate. Among the Swiss conductors we should mention (in addition to those mentioned as composers) E. Ansermet in Geneva; until 1934 F. Weingartner was director in Basel, who is now succeeded by H. Münch. Music education is provided in all public schools and, in major cities, in state, municipal or private conservatories. Among the Swiss conductors we should mention (in addition to those mentioned as composers) E. Ansermet in Geneva; until 1934 F. Weingartner was director in Basel, who is now succeeded by H. Münch. Music education is provided in all public schools and, in major cities, in state, municipal or private conservatories. Among the Swiss conductors we should mention (in addition to those mentioned as composers) E. Ansermet in Geneva; until 1934 F. Weingartner was director in Basel, who is now succeeded by H. Münch. Music education is provided in all public schools and, in major cities, in state, municipal or private conservatories.