As one of countries starting with letter R according to Countryaah, Russia is a state in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. The capital is the metropolis of Moscow. Russia is almost twice the size of the United States, making it by far the largest country on earth. The Urals divides Russia into a smaller European and a much larger Asian part (Siberia). The land consists mostly of wide plains. They are bordered by high mountains on the southern border of Russia. Most of the country has a continental climate, which in Siberia shows extreme differences between the short warm summers and the long cold winters.
It was shaped by the enormous boom in industrial construction not only in mass housing construction, but also in public buildings (Congress Palace in the Kremlin, 1961, Comecon Building, 1969, both in Moscow, by Mikhail W. Possochin [* 1910, † 1989] and others). In addition, there were generous urban reconstruction measures, such as B. Moscow’s Kalinin Prospect (today New Arbat; 1964–69, Possochin, etc.), the construction of entire cities (Zelinograd, Bratsk, Norilsk), the design of large memorial complexes such as in Volgograd and the ring of monuments around Moscow and Saint Petersburg.
The sculptural manuscripts gained in individuality and diversity, just as the Soviet visual arts as a whole reverted to the stylistic, methodological and aesthetic legacy of the 1920s and Western European neorealism, American realism and abstract art became important sources of inspiration. Inexorably, the sculpture broke away from the academic, striking-realistic and naturalistic conceptions and found a new feeling and richness of form (including Lea Dawydowa-Medene, * 1921, † 1986;Oleg Komow, * 1932, † 1994; Turgunbaj Sadykow, * 1935). In addition, the Soviet academism in sculpture, represented by Lew E. Kerbel (* 1917, † 2003), Nikolai W. Tomski (* 1900, † 1984) and Evgeni W. Wutschetitsch (* 1908, † 1974), his permanent position.
Painting and graphics
A new, committed realism took hold (including Viktor Ivanov, * 1924; Andrei Wasnezow, * 1924). His typical forms of expression were the expressive, strict style with laconic imagery and often dark, earthy colors (including Yevsei Moisejenko, * 1916, † 1988; Wiktor Popkow, * 1932, † 1974), the realistic, symbolic style (including Geli Korschew, * 1925, † 2012; Tair T. Salachow, * 1928; Dmitri Shilinski, * 1927; Dmitri Bisti, * 1925, † 1990) and a trend that sometimes tends to romanticize (e.g. Tatiana Nilowna Jablonskaja, who mainly works in Ukraine , * 1919, † 2006). Another setback was the November 1962 exhibition in the Moscow Manege, the criticism of which led to a clear, long-lasting polarization between officially recognized and alternative, non-conformist art. Since the late 1960s, an almost unmanageable variety of topics, styles, artistic techniques and experiments as well as aesthetic programs has developed. From the mid-1970s, four major art sectors could be established: the official, increasingly anachronistic and meaningless propaganda art (including Dmitri A. Nalbandjan, * 1906, † 1993; Fyodor P. Reshetnikov, * 1906, † 1988); the diverse, largely self-determined conformal or tolerated art (Olga Bulgakowa, * 1951; Tatiana Nasarenko, * 1944; W. Popkow; Alexander Sitnikow, * 1945); the persecuted non-conformist art; the kitsch sphere, which developed from a commercial point of view in the 1980s.
The non-conformist art reached its peak in the 1960s and 1970s to about 1990. It referred ironically critical distance to the classical avant-garde, (socialist) realism and international art and distinguished himself by seeking a religious and ideological context of. One of their central aesthetic and philosophical currents was “Moscow Conceptualism”. In doing so, she used various strategies, including painting, sculpture, performance, installation and photography. B. Concept-Art (IJ Kabakow ; Viktor Pivovarov, * 1937, moved to Prague in 1981; DA Prigow ; Grisha Bruskin, * 1945, moved to New York in 1988), »Soz Art« (E. Bulatow , moved to Paris in 1992; Komar & Melamid [ Witali Komar, * 1943, and Alexander Melamid, * 1945], moved to New York in 1978; B. Mikhailov ), surrealism / metaphysics (Wladimir Jankilewski, * 1938, moved to New York in 1990 and to Paris in 1992; Julo Sooster, * 1924, † 1970; Wladimir G. Weisberg, * 1924, † 1985; Dmitri M. Krasnopewcew, * 1925, † 1996; Michail Schwarzman, * 1926, † 1997), geometric abstraction (Eduard Schtejnberg, * 1937; Wladimir Nemuchin, * 1925, † 2016), New Figuration (Wladimir Jakowlew, * 1934, † 1998; Anatoli T. Zwerew, * 1931, † 1986; Michail Roginski, * 1931, † 2004; Iwan Chuikow, * 1935, has lived in Cologne and Moscow since the early 1990s; Arkadi Petrow, * 1940). The works of the group “Dwischenije” (movement) around Francisco Arana Infante (* 1943) and Lew Nussberg (* 1937) show influences from Suprematism and kinetic art. In the field of sculpture and object art there should also be mentioned Ernst Iossifowitsch Neiswestny (* 1925, † 2016), Vadim Sidur (* 1924, † 1986), Igor Šelkowski (* 1937, moved to Paris in 1977), Boris Orlow (* 1941), Boris Smertin (* 1947, † 1993) and Alexander Kossolapow (* 1943, moved to New York in 1975). Heterogeneous groups also formed, e.g. B. the »Lijanosowskaja Gruppa« around Oskar Rabin (* 1928, moved to Paris in 1978). The younger generation of artists between 1975 and 1990 took a clearer stance. She increasingly worked with multimedia, including photography and video (including Konstantin Swesdotschetow, * 1958; Swetlana, * 1950, and Igor Kopistiansky, * 1954, both moved to New York in 1988; M. Kantor ; Vadim Fishkin, * 1965, since 1992 in Ljubljana). Similar working groups include “Kollektiwnoe Dejstwije” (“Collective Action”), “Inspection Medical Hermeneutics” (Pawel Pepperstein, * 1966; Juri Lejderman, * 1963), “Muchomor” (“Toadstool”), “Tschempiony mira” (“World Champion”). The movement “Moscow Actionism” (including Anatoli Osmolowski, * 1969) was radical in terms of cultural policy. The »New Artists« (including Timur Novikow, * 1958, † 2002; Sergei Bugaew Afrika, * 1966) and »Nekrorealisten« (including Evgenij Jufit, * 1961) were created in Saint Petersburg. Experimental film gained in importance since the mid-1980s (Jufit; Gleb, * 1966, and Igor Aleinikow, * 1962, † 1994).