According to fashionissupreme, Lebanon (Arabic Lubnan) is a state in Southwest Asia, overlooking the eastern Mediterranean (Levantine Sea), bounded on the N and E with Syria, S with Israel.
In the territory of Lebanon some physiographic elements are well recognizable that stretch in the NNE-SSW direction: the coastal strip; the L chain; the inner plain of the Beqaa Valley (the ancient Celesiria); the reliefs of the chains of Hermon and Anti-Lebanon. The coastal strip, from 3 to 20 km wide, rises from sea level towards a hilly area up to an altitude of 1500 m. This region enjoys a Mediterranean climate and has the typical scrub at the lowest altitudes, while higher rainfall and numerous springs have allowed extensive cultivation. The watercourses have mostly torrential regime and descend towards the coast parallel to each other. The coast, on the whole straight, shows numerous promontories and inlets. The Lebanon chain certainly represents the most important morphological element of this country and conditions its climate by dividing the coastal strip, with a temperate climate and abundant precipitations, from the innermost areas which instead have a dry climate, with high temperatures, heralding the climatic characteristics of the Syriac desert. The inner plain of the Beqaa Valley is stretched for about 120 km, while its width varies from 8 to 12 km. It is crossed to the north by the Orontes river and to the south by the Litani (Leonte), which bends sharply towards the coast near the Israeli border. The Anti-Lebanon and the Hermon chain have relatively milder shapes, with maximum altitudes ranging from 2300 to 2800 m of altitude. The climate is very arid and the vegetation is rather sparse.
The long period of political-military upheaval has altered the demographic structures of the country, for which the same consistency of the population must be referred to United Nations estimates, dating back to the last official census in 1970 (2,126,325 residents, In addition to 187,529 refugees Palestinians); the birth rates (17.1 ‰) and death rates (6.03 ‰) are also estimated (as of 2009). Main cities, besides the capital, are Tripoli and Sidon. As for religion, there are Muslims (Shiites 34.1%, Sunnis 21.2%), Catholics (Maronites) 23.4%, Orthodox 11.2%, Druze 7%, others 3.1%. Although Arabic is the official language, French remains widespread.
The political disintegration that occurred during the years of the civil war (1975-91) led to the disruption of the entire economic system. To encourage reconstruction, a government plan was launched which focused above all on foreign investments and loans, as well as on the involvement of the private sector in the reconstruction of infrastructures and on the setting up of social programs. Furthermore, the Lebanese government has made the fight against public debt (which reached 109% of GDP at the end of 1998) one of the priorities of its economic policy, despite the uncertainties in choosing the appropriate instruments. The war of 2006 and the subsequent phase of political uncertainty once again caused very serious damage to the economic and financial structure of the Law, despite the enormous aid offered by donor countries.
The agriculture and livestock sectors, like other productive activities, have been severely tested by the war, which has resulted in a depopulation of the countryside. The main crops are those of cereals (wheat, barley, corn), vines, citrus fruits and oil plants (sunflower, olive tree). Manufacturing activities are downsized compared to the past: large companies have given way to smaller production units; the main sectors are agri-food, cement and tobacco processing, oil refining and the textile industry; a steel plant is active in Biut Jubayl. There are signs of recovery, even if the function of Lebanon as a commercial and financial center of the Near East has gradually disappeared due to competition from other markets.