The haiku was transformed into a delicate and tiny poem, full of harmony and refined subtlety and poetry, reflecting one of the aspects of the Japanese soul. The symbolist school of Basho was called Jittetsu. This school was followed by that of the Impressionist Yosa Buson (1716-83) and that of Kokahashi Issa (1763-1827). Senryu, in the 18th century, reverted to the satirical type of ancient haiku.

The novel of this time was, in general, licentious and immoral; Saikaku (1642-93) was the one who launched this genre, which quickly became very popular; Kyoden (1761-1816) added adventure novels to this genre, but the most prolific and famous novelist of this time was undoubtedly Bakin (1768-1848), who wrote 190 works, of which Hakenden (A History of Eight gentlemen), begun in 1814 and completed in 1841, comprises 106 volumes, most of which are illustrated by the cartoonist Hokusai (1760-1849).

Openness to Western influence. It took place in the Meiji period, which stretches from 1868 to 1912, and it is already known with what speed and flexibility the country has transformed and turned into a great international power. Economic progress, social and political conditions had an accelerated evolution; however, literature suffered a decline as a result of this contact with the West. At this time, works originating from Europe and America were translated into Japanese, and two currents were formed, one indigenous traditionalist and the other Western, which merged and created the contemporary literature of 1.

Under this stage of the discovery of the West, scholars, researchers, and writers 1. tried to enlighten themselves about Western cultures that they were ignorant of. Japanese writers, such as Fukuzaua (1834-1901), reported general studies they had carried out on the West and its civilization. Other scholars specialized by country: Tsubutchi (1859-1935) dedicated himself to England; Mori (1862-1922) to Germany; Hasegaua Futabatei (1864-1909) to Russia.

The first was also a critic and a novelist highly esteemed even today, all because of his Shosetsu Shinzui (Beginning of the novel), written in 1882. In order to keep the tradition of classical poetry pure, Emperor Mitsu-Hito ordered the creation in Tokyo (the new capital) of an Academy of Poetry, O-uta-dokoro, and the foundation of a Poetic Society, Uta-kai, which still exists. Competitions are called in which prizes are awarded.

According to allcitycodes, the great poet Masaoka Shiki (1867-1902), an admirer of Bashó, restored the haiku and the tanka and created in 1897 a literary magazine called Hototogisu (The Cuckoo), which was very well received by numerous writers, whom he greatly influenced. Modern literature stands out for its opposition to traditionalist poetry, Shimazaki Tóson (1872-1943), a naturalist writer, created the poetry shintai-shi (poetry of a new form), or shi, which adopted a new verse of 17 and 20 syllables, which marks the beginning of modern poetry in Japan The rev.

Myójo (Morning Star), created by Yosano Tekkan (1873-1935), has played a leading role in the literary world of the time and has introduced the ancient tanka into the modern poetic world, as well as the use of Chinese words in Japanese poetry. One of the best tanka poets and a forerunner of contemporary Japanese poetry was Ishikawa Takuboku (1885-1912).

At the beginning of the 20th century, the various Western literary schools were revealed in Japan: romanticism, symbolism, naturalism, idealism, neo-romanticism. Each had its supporters and its Japanese writers, and it is curious, and sometimes surprising, to observe how there were “romantic” authors at the same time that others imitated Paul Valéry. From this time we can cite Kitahara Hakushu (1885-1942), who published in 1909 his extraordinary Jashumon (The Perverse Religion) and whose waka and Do-yó songs are much admired.

With the emancipation of the rule of the 5, 7 and 5 syllables of haiku and the popularization of free verse, of the shintaishi, a new era opened. It was a new art, an exciting popular poetry that was opposed to pure and artistic poetry. The master of the tanka was Saito Mokoshi (1882-1953), founder of the Araragi school in 1908; and the master of haiku, after Masaoka Shiki’s death, was Takahama Koyshi (b. 1874). Recently, a proletarian, communist poetry has been created that ignores and disregards the poetic rules.

The daily press and literary magazines spread the works of young poets and novelists. In recent years, directed literature has gained importance: exaltation of the Japanese soldier on Chinese soil during World War 11. Hino Achihei’s (b.1902) trilogy on the soldier was very successful.

There is currently a modern postwar literature that does not have much aesthetic value. Descriptions of postwar life, the drama of the atomic bombs, the trauma of defeat, were eagerly read, and the works of Dr. Nagai (d. 1951), The Bells of Nagasaki (1947), My Children Who can be seen (1948), had and still have profound resonances. There is also a new trend in favor of Chinese and Japanese classicism towards the immortal masterpieces of past centuries.

And, in opposition, another modern trend seeks to accommodate Japanese sensibilities to the modern world. Let us cite the names of Tamura Ryuichi (b.1923) and Tanigawa Shuntaro (b.1931). The literature of Japan is therefore going through a period of transition, in which it is worth highlighting Kawabata Yasunari (1899-1972), winner of the 1968 Nobel Prize in Literature.

Japan Language and Literature

Japan Language and Literature
Tagged on: