Austria-Hungary (Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, Danube Monarchy), name for the dual monarchy created in 1867 after the Austro-Hungarian settlement. It emphasized the indivisibility of the Habsburg lands, but recognized Hungary as an independent kingdom under the Habsburg dynasty with its own legislation and administration. Foreign policy, the army and the financial system were regulated together.

After the First World War, according to allcitycodes, Austria-Hungary was dissolved; Austria, Hungary and Czechoslovakia emerged as successor states; individual areas came to Italy, Poland, Romania and Serbia.


Austria-Hungary, officially 1868–1918 Austro-Hungarian monarchy, colloquially also Danube Monarchy, former multi-ethnic state in Central and Southeastern Europe, with 676 615 km 2 and (1914) 52.8 million residents; was the second largest European great power after Russia until 1914, in 1910 it comprised the two national peoples (Germans 12.01 million, Magyars 10.07 million) Czechs and Slovaks (8.47 million), Poles (5.02 million).), Ukrainians (Ruthenians; 4.0 million), Serbs and Croats (5.55 million), Slovenes (1.35 million), Romanians (3.22 million), Italians (0.8 million).

Under constitutional law, Austria-Hungary was a personal and real union (double monarchy) of the kingdoms and countries represented in the Imperial Council (Empire Austria; Zisleithanien) and the countries of the Hungarian St. Stephen’s Crown (Kingdom of Hungary; Transleithania). In both parts of the empire the crown was hereditary in the House of Habsburg-Lothringen (pragmatic sanction). Together they administered the former Ottoman provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which were occupied in 1878 and incorporated as imperial lands in 1908 (according to the constitution of February 20, 1910 by a state government with a state parliament). The constitutional connection between the two halves of the empire was established in the Austro-Hungarian Compromise Regulated in 1867; thereafter, the entire government of the Danube Monarchy took place in the (pragmatic) matters determined as jointly by imperial and royal (k. u. k.) ministries, the joint council of ministers or delegations. In the other domestic political affairs, both halves of the empire acted independently: through their own imperial-royal (k. K.) In Austria or royal-Hungarian (m. Kir. [Magyar királyi] or kgl. Hung.) Governments and their own bicameral representative bodies. Ultimately, the question of nationality remained unsolved.

A uniform constitution for the entire monarchy did not come about. The constitution of the Austrian Empire was based on the December constitution of December 21, 1867, that of the individual crown lands on the 15 provincial ordinances of 1861. The emperor exercised the legislative power together with the Imperial Council, in state affairs with the provincial assemblies of the crown lands. The Reichsrat consisted of the manor house of (1914) 291 members and the House of Representatives of (1914) 516 members elected by the people for six years. The state administration in Vienna was headed by nine ministers and at times three ministers without portfolio, the state administration in the crown lands was headed by the Lieutenancy (provincial government), and the provincial committee was responsible for self-administration. In the Kingdom of Hungary (with Transylvania, the free royal city of Fiume, Croatia-Slavonia), the legislation was exercised by the king with the Reichstag, which consisted of the magnate board (upper house) of (1914) 366 members and the representative board of (1914) 413 members elected for five years (including 40 representatives elected by the Croatian-Slavonian state parliament). (Austria, history)

Coat of arms (from 1804): After the proclamation of the Empire of Austria, the Roman-German double-headed eagle was covered with a breast shield, inside another double-headed eagle with the red, white and red shield (” binding shield “) of Austria on the chest. The validity of the imperial double-headed eagle for the Hungarian parts of the empire had been disputed since the middle of the 19th century. In 1915 a double coat of arms (alliance coat of arms) was created, which (heraldically) had the imperial double eagle with a purely Austrian breast shield on the right, a coat of arms shield for Hungary on the left, each shield covered with the crown (“Rudolfine” house crown and St. Stephen’s crown) and connected by the royal crown ” Genealogical coats of arms of the very highest imperial house «.

Austria-Hungary: parts of the empire

Parts of the empire Area (in km 2) Ew. (in 1,000) capital city
Crown lands 1869 1914
Austria 300 004 20,379.8 29 193.3 Vienna
Lower Austria 19 825 1,990.7 3,635.0 Vienna
Upper Austria 11,982 736.6 864.0 Linz
Salzburg 7 153 153.2 221.3 Salzburg
Styria 22 425 1 138.0 1,467.8 Graz
Carinthia 10 326 337.7 406.2 Klagenfurt
Tyrol 26 683 776.3 979.7 innsbruck
Vorarlberg 2 602 102.6 150.8 Bregenz
Bohemia 51 947 5 140.5 6 860.0 Prague
Moravia 22 222 2,017.3 2,666.6 Brno
Silesia 5 174 513.4 776.0 Opava
Galicia 78 497 5,444.7 8 211.8 Lviv
Bucovina 10 441 523.4 818.3 Chernivtsi
Carniola 9 954 466.3 530.2 Laibach
Coastal land 7,969 582.1 938.0 Trieste
Dalmatia 12 831 457.0 667.6 Zara
Hungary 325 411 13 395.3 21 530.6 Budapest
Hungary 282 870 11 530,, 4 18 810.9 Budapest
Fiume 20th 17.9 49.8 Fiume
Croatia Slavonia 42 521 1 847.0 *) 2,669.9 Agram
Bosnia Herzegovina 51 200 2,075.8 Sarajevo
Austria-Hungary 676 615 33 775.1 52 799.7 Vienna
*) with military border


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