Austria-Hungary (Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, Danube Monarchy), name for the dual monarchy created in 1867 after the Austro-Hungarian settlement. It emphasized the indivisibility of the Habsburg lands, but recognized Hungary as an independent kingdom under the Habsburg dynasty with its own legislation and administration. Foreign policy, the army and the financial system were regulated together.
After the First World War, according to allcitycodes, Austria-Hungary was dissolved; Austria, Hungary and Czechoslovakia emerged as successor states; individual areas came to Italy, Poland, Romania and Serbia.
Austria-Hungary, officially 1868–1918 Austro-Hungarian monarchy, colloquially also Danube Monarchy, former multi-ethnic state in Central and Southeastern Europe, with 676 615 km 2 and (1914) 52.8 million residents; was the second largest European great power after Russia until 1914, in 1910 it comprised the two national peoples (Germans 12.01 million, Magyars 10.07 million) Czechs and Slovaks (8.47 million), Poles (5.02 million).), Ukrainians (Ruthenians; 4.0 million), Serbs and Croats (5.55 million), Slovenes (1.35 million), Romanians (3.22 million), Italians (0.8 million).
Under constitutional law, Austria-Hungary was a personal and real union (double monarchy) of the kingdoms and countries represented in the Imperial Council (Empire Austria; Zisleithanien) and the countries of the Hungarian St. Stephen’s Crown (Kingdom of Hungary; Transleithania). In both parts of the empire the crown was hereditary in the House of Habsburg-Lothringen (pragmatic sanction). Together they administered the former Ottoman provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which were occupied in 1878 and incorporated as imperial lands in 1908 (according to the constitution of February 20, 1910 by a state government with a state parliament). The constitutional connection between the two halves of the empire was established in the Austro-Hungarian Compromise Regulated in 1867; thereafter, the entire government of the Danube Monarchy took place in the (pragmatic) matters determined as jointly by imperial and royal (k. u. k.) ministries, the joint council of ministers or delegations. In the other domestic political affairs, both halves of the empire acted independently: through their own imperial-royal (k. K.) In Austria or royal-Hungarian (m. Kir. [Magyar királyi] or kgl. Hung.) Governments and their own bicameral representative bodies. Ultimately, the question of nationality remained unsolved.
A uniform constitution for the entire monarchy did not come about. The constitution of the Austrian Empire was based on the December constitution of December 21, 1867, that of the individual crown lands on the 15 provincial ordinances of 1861. The emperor exercised the legislative power together with the Imperial Council, in state affairs with the provincial assemblies of the crown lands. The Reichsrat consisted of the manor house of (1914) 291 members and the House of Representatives of (1914) 516 members elected by the people for six years. The state administration in Vienna was headed by nine ministers and at times three ministers without portfolio, the state administration in the crown lands was headed by the Lieutenancy (provincial government), and the provincial committee was responsible for self-administration. In the Kingdom of Hungary (with Transylvania, the free royal city of Fiume, Croatia-Slavonia), the legislation was exercised by the king with the Reichstag, which consisted of the magnate board (upper house) of (1914) 366 members and the representative board of (1914) 413 members elected for five years (including 40 representatives elected by the Croatian-Slavonian state parliament). (Austria, history)
Coat of arms (from 1804): After the proclamation of the Empire of Austria, the Roman-German double-headed eagle was covered with a breast shield, inside another double-headed eagle with the red, white and red shield (” binding shield “) of Austria on the chest. The validity of the imperial double-headed eagle for the Hungarian parts of the empire had been disputed since the middle of the 19th century. In 1915 a double coat of arms (alliance coat of arms) was created, which (heraldically) had the imperial double eagle with a purely Austrian breast shield on the right, a coat of arms shield for Hungary on the left, each shield covered with the crown (“Rudolfine” house crown and St. Stephen’s crown) and connected by the royal crown ” Genealogical coats of arms of the very highest imperial house «.
Austria-Hungary: parts of the empire
|Parts of the empire||Area (in km 2)||Ew. (in 1,000)||capital city|
|Austria||300 004||20,379.8||29 193.3||Vienna|
|Lower Austria||19 825||1,990.7||3,635.0||Vienna|
|Styria||22 425||1 138.0||1,467.8||Graz|
|Bohemia||51 947||5 140.5||6 860.0||Prague|
|Galicia||78 497||5,444.7||8 211.8||Lviv|
|Hungary||325 411||13 395.3||21 530.6||Budapest|
|Hungary||282 870||11 530,, 4||18 810.9||Budapest|
|Croatia Slavonia||42 521||1 847.0 *)||2,669.9||Agram|
|Bosnia Herzegovina||51 200||–||2,075.8||Sarajevo|
|Austria-Hungary||676 615||33 775.1||52 799.7||Vienna|
|*) with military border|