You like it Park your car? This question is not as “silly” as it would appear first. To begin with there are many drivers don’t like to actually drive, although this is a contradiction, and you do it by necessity, because the car is a transport to go where needed. To continue even drivers who like driving, not everyone enjoys equally Park the car.
And that not to mention motorists who do not end up having the necessary skills to properly Park the car (one example that rubbing or hitting other cars). Also you should also think about those other things that age or other disadvantages already does not enjoy the same freedom of movement, for example to turn the head to look back. All this is that one of the first applications of systems of autonomous control of a car was parking.
We do simpler parking
The first systems, offered for sale some years now (the first dates from 2004), they were the parking assistance systems, much must consider semi-autonomous parking, as though the car is able to perform certain actions of the fact of parking, by itself is not able to do it all by itself only.
These systems attempt to help three of the tasks more problems are often created:
- Measure the gap parking to recognize if the car comes or does not fit into the.
- Spin direction What is required for car will replace and properly maneuver to enter the hollow.
- Measure the distance with obstacles or other vehicles that delimit the hollow of parking for avoid shock and friction.
To do this they used primarily two technologies:
- The actuators in the direction, Thanks to the incorporation of electric assisted addresses, in which the electric motor that assists can also be used to spin the wheel of autonomously, under the processing unit of the parking assistance system.
- The Ultrasonic distance sensors, placed in paragolpees them to front and rear, measuring distances of short-range (up to 5 or 6 meters approximately.) Each bumper tend to have six sensors, four measuring the distance towards the front and towards the corners, and two others, one on each side, at the end of the bumper in the passage of wheels, measuring the distance to the side. The sensors are capable of measuring the distance even at the kerbside.
In practice all this serves for the following:
- The driver activates the system and slowly approaching a parking place. The sensors are measuring distances and when identified one sufficient gap which can enter the car, they will indicate the driver through the screen of the computer on-board instrument cluster.
- At that time the driver must stop and follow the instructions of the system. It must be borne in mind that the system only operates on the steering wheel, does not act on the accelerator, brake or gear box.
- When directed by the system, the driver has to insert the reverse gear and accelerating gently. The steering wheel it will turn on only what is necessary.
- At any given time the system will indicate to the conductor that slow down, then to insert forward it (the first). The driver will have to accelerate gently. The steering wheel it will turn on again only, and sometime the system will indicate the driver having to slow down. If it is necessary to correct the maneuver several times to park the car, it will be repeating these sequences.
These systems began only for parking in line, but later expanded also to parking in battery. They serve both to Park to drive (and leave the parking place). We could call them parking systems hands-free, since the driver does not need to turn the steering wheel, but it is necessary that it operated Accelerator and brake.
They are present in more and more brands and models car, and have a not very high cost, According to the model we can speak of an optional extra of between 180 and around 300 euros approximately.
Why do not do you you all?
Obviously the technology evolves and the wishes of the drivers also. If these systems are a first step to simplify the task of parking the car, not do it much more comfortable? The evolution of these assistants is now, is what might be called Advanced parking assistance systems. There is already a model with a set of these for sale (but at the moment are very few still).
In essence we are talking about the same system that expands so that he also acts on the throttle, brake and gearbox as needed. IE is released the driver have to follow instructions and speed up or slow down, then is the car that does it all. That Yes, it is necessary that the car has automatic.
In this case the electronic management of the accelerator, brake and gearshift is which allows that they can trigger through the system control unit. Two examples of cars can be put for now already on sale with this advanced system: BMW i3 and the Tesla Model S, both are electric cars.
That Yes, as a matter of security driver It must be in his post and continues to be responsible for what do or stop doing the car. In the system of BMW, we had occasion to try in person, the driver You must hold down a button the extension of the central console between the seats. It is a kind of emergency stop “Deadman”, if the driver fails to press it the car stops completely immediately.
We have seen that the system, although it works very well, is not infallible, inter alia because distance sensors do not see everything, and that the driver has to be aware at all times of the manoeuvre. For example: parking online, when the car is in diagonal entering or exiting, the system does not see if a car comes down the street. Anyway, this problem is resolving to incorporate other additional systems, such as for example the rear cross-traffic alert radar to cars. In the automotive world things go slowly.
Since we are: and if I am under the car?
If the car is able to perform all actions necessary to Park, is that the conductor is inside the car it essential? Well actually no. This we have seen in systems such as Valeo Park4U, which uses a smartphone to order maneuver, or the system of Ford, which is controlled with the car key. They could be called Remote parking systems.
Now these systems are prototypes, but it should not take long to reach car models that are on sale. The new BMW 7 series is very similar, and will go on sale immediately, though only seen in video coming and going straight from a garage, and it is not clear if it is able to perform more complex without driver parking maneuvers (although speaking techniques should be able to).
These systems offer the advantage that the car can park itself in parking close, in which barely there space to open doors and climb and get off the car. The driver is still responsible for What make the car, you have to be present in front of the car and press a button during the maneuver, again as a security system, on the smartphone, either in the llave-mando of the car.
Mira, best, Park yourself you only, that I I am here under
But, why do you have to monitor the driver maneuver? The next step in the autonomous parking (in this case Yes that is it completely) is closely related to the autonomous driving. The record that for now it is only something conceptual, they have shown some prototypes, but it will still take something to get. We can cite examples such as Audi Garage Parking Pilot, or BMW, very similar but not exactly the same system.
The car must have driving systems automated at low speed, rotating direction, accelerate, brake and shift gears, although to detect obstacles only be used, in principle, ultrasonic distance sensors. It is worth mentioning that in addition the parking must be equipped with a system of beacon using laser scanners and must also have a Car-To-infrastructure communication system.
The driver simply leaving the car at the entrance of the parking, is lowered and tells you to park via a smartphone (or even a smartwatch). Parking control system tells the car where is the nearest free square and also sends you a detailed map of the parking and the route to follow to get (let us not forget that inside a building or in a basement will not get GPS signal). The car moves to speed limited to 10 km/h maximum up to park. When the driver wants to pick up the car will do so over the phone and car will come to the entrance.
A variant of this possibility is the system of Volvo, which requires a priori systems of buoyage in the parking lot. This requires that the car has full autonomous driving systems: in addition to the automatisms in direction, throttle, brake and shift gears, and ultrasonic distance sensors, are also used radar, lidar and video cameras, for the recognition of the lines of the soil, other vehicles, pedestrians, etc.
This latest fully autonomous system, continues to be in itself an autonomous car. And they will come sooner or more, but will need time.